Violence is gendered

To understand the discussion about violence and gender it is necessary to first understand what the word gender means. Gender does not mean “women,” “men,” or “sex.” Here are two articles that explain what the word gender means and why it is relevant to health research.

Fishman, J. R., Wick, J. G., & Koenig, B. A. (1999). The use of “sex” and “gender” to define and characterize meaningful differences between men and women. Agenda for Research on Women’s Health for the 21st Century, 2, 15–20.

Phillips, S. P. (2005). Defining and measuring gender: A social determinant of health whose time has come. International Journal for Equity in Health, 4(11), 1–4.


Here are some sources on gender and gender asymmetry in violence against intimate partners.

Dragiewicz, M. (2011). Equality with a vengeance: Men’s rights groups, battered women, and antifeminist backlash. Boston: Northeastern University Press.

Dragiewicz, M. and Lindgren, Y. (2009). The gendered nature of domestic violence: Statistical data for lawyers considering equal protection analysis. American University Journal of Gender, Social Policy & the Law. The first annual American Bar Association Domestic Violence Commission and Journal of Gender, Social Policy and the Law domestic violence dedicated section, 17(2), 229-268.

Dragiewicz, M. (2009). Why sex and gender matter in domestic violence research and advocacy. In E. Stark and E. Buzawa (Eds.) Violence against women in families and relationships: Making and breaking connections, Volume three: Criminal justice and the law (pp. 201-215). Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger.

Dragiewicz, M. & DeKeseredy, W.S. (2012). Claims about women’s use of non-fatal force in intimate relationships: A contextual review of the Canadian research. Violence Against Women, 18(9) 1008-1026.

DeKeseredy, W. and Dragiewicz, M. (2007). Understanding the complexities of feminist perspectives on woman abuse: A commentary on Donald G. Dutton’s Rethinking domestic violence. Violence Against Women, 13(8), 874-884.

Dragiewicz, M. (2013).  Family violence or woman abuse? Putting gender back into the Canadian research equation In R. Alaggia, and C. Vine, (Eds.) Cruel but not unusual: Violence in Canadian families, Vol. II (pp. 76-104). Waterloo, ON: Wilfrid Laurier University Press.

DeKeseredy, W.S. & Dragiewicz, M. (2014). Woman abuse in Canada: Sociological reflections on the past, suggestions for the future. Violence Against Women, 20(2): 228-244.

DeKeseredy, W., & Schwartz, M. (1998). Measuring the extent of woman abuse in intimate heterosexual relationships: A critique of the conflict tactics scales.

Battered men? Battered facts. By Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting. 1994.

The myth of the ‘Battered Husband Syndrome.’ By Jack Straton. 1994.

Are heterosexual men also victims of intimate partner abuse? By Joanne Belknap and Heather Melton. 2005.

Male violence and male privilege.By Dick Bathrick and Gus Kaufman, Jr. 2001.

The lie of entitlement. By Red Crowley. 2001.

  • Black Twitter Icon

© 2023 by  Emilia Carter. Proudly created with